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Web Hosting - Domain Name Changes and How They Affect You New domain names are registered all the time, and ones previously registered expired. Sometimes that's the result of simple neglect. The owner of the name chose not to renew his or her ownership, so the name became available for someone else to use. In rare cases, a highly original mind managed to think of a new one. In the other common scenarios, someone chose to just let it go or sell it. When you choose to change your domain name, there are actually two separate steps involved: releasing the old name, and adopting the new one. But, just as the postal system can have difficulty forwarding your letters when you change your personal name, changing your domain name brings certain difficulties. One of the most prominent is the fact that any name change requires a change to thousands of DNS Servers around the globe. DNS (Domain Name System) is the set of software/hardware components that allows domain names to map to IP addresses. IP addresses are what are actually used 'under the covers' when one computer communicates with another. Note that there isn't always a 1:1 correspondence between a name and an IP address. One IP address can serve multiple domain names and one domain name can have multiple IP addresses. For the sake of simplicity, we'll stick to the common case here. DNS servers around the world maintain internal databases that match the name to an IP address. Not all servers have all pairs of names/addresses. A series of complex routines allows a request to be forwarded when the particular DNS server doesn't have a needed record. When you acquire a domain name that used to be associated with a given IP address, the odds of you acquiring the same IP address are extremely low. In the unlikely case, for example, that you acquired the domain name yahoo.com, you would almost certainly not get the IP address that was matched with it (unless you bought the Yahoo! company). So, as a result of the change, the name/IP address pair is no longer what it was. A similar circumstance exists when you retain your IP address, but want to change the domain name associated with it. In either case, the pairing has changed. The catch is this: when the change takes place, those DNS databases are not all updated instantaneously around the world. Even apart from the limited speed with which computers and networks operate, (and neglecting the human factor if/when the change is made manually to more than one server) the reason is something called caching. In order to communicate efficiently, DNS servers are designed to assume that changes will be relatively rare. Just as with the postal system, you don't move your address or change your name every minute. Since that's true, in general, the name/IP address pair is cached. A cache is a set of stored information that is reused so that fresh information doesn't have to be communicated with every request for a web page or data. A chain of DNS servers pass requests to the last known address. There is usually more than one system between your computer and the server you want to communicate with. Most of the time, that's your current name/address. When you change the name, that pair is no longer valid. In order to propagate the new name/address pair (so the terminology goes), that cache has to be refreshed. Something similar happens when you establish an entirely new name. That name is first associated with an IP address and that pair has to be communicated to DNS servers around the world in order for you to be able to reach any one of them at random. But DNS servers don't do that until they are requested to do so by your action of asking for information from a remote server. Because of that, but chiefly because of caching, it can take quite a while for the new pair to become known around the Internet. Caches can expire and get refreshed in a few minutes or a few hours. It varies. That time can be as short as an hour or less, if the path between your computer and the web server is very simple and only one DNS server needs to be updated. Or, it can take up to 48 hours or more. Though the 'official' range is often given by registrars as 24-48 hours, the average is closer to about six hours. But that's an average. The actual time in any given case can (and does) vary widely. In the meantime, a number of effects can occur. The most obvious is that, since the name/IP address pair can't be resolved properly, you don't reach the server you want. Your browser points to the old one (in the rare case it's still accessible by that name and address), or it simply reports there's no such name at that address. So, when registering a new name or buying an old one, you should establish the site, but not advertise it for at least a couple of days. Better to wait to get visitors than to turn them off by being 'not at home' when they call.

The Definition of Writing Styles Depends on Who is Defining Them (writing styles) While researching this topic, you may have found many different answers to what are the different types of writing styles. No two answers were the same. They range anywhere from your personal way of writing that is your writing style to formal and informal. Many people feel the best answer to what writing styles are the those will be outlined below in this article. You can decide for yourself if this definition suits your. The term creative writing covers a range of writing areas. Poetry, fiction books, short stories, and screenplays are considered creative writings. Any writing in which is not strictly non-fiction would be classified as such. Journalism and news reporting are forms of Expository writing. The purpose is to focus on one topic and inform the reader by provided the facts. These writings can be seen in the forms of travel brochures, professional journal, business reports, and new paper articles. Descriptive writing is what gives you the mental pictures of what we have read. It uses a lot of adjective and adverbs to describe things. When descriptive writing is very good you can close your eyes and know exactly what the author is saying. The kind that makes you taste what the characters and see what they are seeing. Analytical Writing is a writing that focuses on a topic and then verifies the purpose of it. It is often taught school age children through out the years because it is something they will use in their life. Book reports, conference papers, thesis, essays, and dissertations are all academic writing. It is created using a third person point of view and deductive reasoning supported by facts. Its purpose is to show a clear understanding of a subject by presenting information. Technical Writing is used in owner manuals, how to guides, magazine articles, and design specs just to name a few. Its purpose is to take complicated technical information and turn it into something the intended audience can understand. Technical writing usually deals with electronics of all sorts, chemistry, robotics, and finance. Any kind of writing that has to do with business matters is considered business writing. It is concise and to the point. Your intended audience wants to know what happen and why, but with minimal detail in between. An active voice is necessary in business writing. It keeps people focused and shows that you are in control of situations. Correspondence is the writing of memos, letters, or emails between people. It is a message that is sent between two people or groups of people. To provide facts and statistic and having the ability to influence your readers with your words is persuasive writing. This is used for products ads, political campaigns, or any kind of promotion. It is not necessary to prove why something is else is wrong or bad you just need to prove why your promoting is better. Narrative writing is use to tell a story or list of events that have already happen, might have happened, or could happen in the future. These writings may include novels, poetry, short stories, or a number of other things. A lot of times many of these styles are meshed together in our writing. Business writing and technical writings are often one in the same as are academic writing and analytical writing. With the overlapping of the styles it hard to define one writing style from another, you can guess it is all a matter of the point of view you are looking at it from and your opinion.

The Many Faces of The Ghostwriting Professional (ghostwriting) Ghostwriting may seem distasteful to some writers, but it is the preferred profession for many writers. Some writers are more satisfied with the act of writing than have their name known by consumers. A ghostwriter is a writer who is paid to write books, articles, stories, and reports that are credited to another person. Ghostwriters have been used by many professionals, including celebrities, executives, and political leader. The writers are usually hired to draft or edit autobiographies, magazine articles, speeches, and other material. The ghostwriter is not always left out; they may sometimes be acknowledged by the author or publisher for assisting in creating the finished product. Ghostwriters have a very important role in the world, and there are many different types of ghostwriters, including nonfiction, fiction, political, medical, blog, and academic writers. Ghostwriters provide an important service to many of their clients. Some people hire ghostwriters to polish and edit a rough draft of their articles and books. If a ghostwriter is used to edit a book or article, most of the language in the finished product will be that of the credited author. Although, some books and articles could not be finished with the help provided by ghostwriting. Typically, ghostwriters are hired to write most of the work, using concepts and stories provided by the author who receives credit. A writer, who writes most or all of the work, will do extensive research on the client or their area of expertise. Ghostwriters always prepare a book or article with input from their client, and the credited authors may provide a basic framework of ideas at the outset, or may provide comments on the final draft of a project. Autobiographies are a common project offered to writers in the field of ghostwriting. When writing an autobiography, ghostwriters typically interview the client, their colleagues, their friends and family, and may also find interviews, articles and video footage relating to the client they are writing for. Ghostwriting may be needed for several reasons and may be needed by many types of people. In most cases, a ghostwriter is needed for a celebrity or public figure who does not have the time, discipline, or writing skills required to write and research an autobiography or other types of books. Publishers to increase the number of books that can be published each year by a well-known author may also recruit the writers. There are many types of ghostwriters, including the nonfiction ghostwriter. In ghostwriting, the nonfiction writer is used by celebrities and public figures that want autobiographies or memoirs published. Nonfiction ghostwriters may also be used to write ?how-to? books, or used to write books for professionals in a certain field. Fiction ghostwriters are another type of ghostwriter, which are usually employed by fiction publishers. Political ghostwriters provide their ghostwriting services to public officials and politicians. These political figures employ ghostwriters to respond to the large volume of correspondence they receive. The writers typically draft response letters for the correspondence that is received. Medical ghostwriters are often hired by pharmaceutical companies to produce papers in medical and scientific journals on the outcomes of medications. Some physicians and scientists from academia may also be paid for the use of their name, which enhances credibility of the study. Many professionals have criticized the use of medical ghostwriting, but it is a common practice that seems to have no decrease in action. A web log or blog ghostwriter is one of the newest types of ghostwriters. Many blog operators use ghostwriters to help generate interest in their blog site. These ghostwriters are hired to post comments to their blog, while posing as others by using pseudonyms. This practice is used to generate more traffic and encourage more real posts. Academic ghostwriters are often used by university and college students, and are hired through essay mills to write entrance essays, term paper, and theses and dissertations. Ghostwriting is not desirable for many writers, but ghostwriters seem to provide a much needed service to the writing community.

Continuing Education Key to Being a Better Employee Employers now recognize the importance of continuing education for employees. Over the past few years, more and more employers have begun to offer tuition reimbursement and continuing education classes to their employees. While this was once thought of as an excessive expensive, it is now understood that continuing education benefits the company as much or more as it does the employee. The job market is becoming more and more competitive everyday. Only the best employees are getting jobs in certain sectors. That means that your skills need to be sharp in order for you to remain valuable to your company. This is where continuing education comes into play. No matter what type of job you have, just about all companies are investing in continuing education. The reasons why are simple. Even though the company may spend a good deal of money on continuing education for their employees, they see an even larger return. By having employees that are on the top of their game, the company will be more productive as a whole. Thus the company will make more money. With that in mind, it is very important that employees always take advantage of continuing education classes when they can. You will be able to stay on top of whatever new trends are coming up and possibly acquire skills that will allow you to move up in the company. By taking continuing education classes, you will become more productive. Studies have found that employees that continue to have their skills refreshed and renewed are more productive on the job. This is a perk for both employees and their employers. You will be able to finish more work in less time and with more understanding. Thus making your time at work easier. If you are not sold on the idea of continuing education, think of it this way. Your employer is paying for it. It is a perk of your job that you should take full advantage of. If you are working towards acquiring skills that will lead you to a promotion or an entirely new job, you are doing something to better yourself. And, it is costing you less, or nothing at all. The best companies to work for in the country have great training programs. This is no coincidence. These companies, which also make a ton of money spend thousands of dollars training their employees so that they can go out and make the company the most money possible. Less successful companies have begun to follow suit. No matter what type of job you have, there are continuing education programs that can help enhance your job experience. Continuing education is a great way to break out of a rut. If you are eager to change jobs or get a promotion, you will fair much better in the job market if you do some continuing education. Use whatever means your company offers to better yourself and become more marketable. The type of continuing education you choose depends on your career goals. It is always helpful to have an advanced degree in a certain field. If tuition reimbursement for graduate school is an option, take it. Having a Master?s or PHD will help you become an expert in your field of study. If your job has company continuing education, take them up on it., Even if a promotion is not exactly what you are looking for, being cross trained is always a good idea. Gain as much in the way of knowledge and skills as you can. When you move on to your next job those skills will look great on your resume.